ARTICULT #13 (1-2014)
ANTI-ESSENTIALISM AND INSTITUTIONALISM IN THE THEORY OF ART: ON THE WAY TO SYNTHESIS
Author Saltykov Denis, MA student, Faculty of Philosophy, National Research University – Higher School of Economics, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Summary: In theory of art of the second half of XX century we see a conflict between two approaches, anti-essentialism and institutionalism. But if we will redefine essentialism in the way Karl Popper did, the opposition between this approaches will turn out to be false. In this context, comparing the positions of Morris Weitz and George Dickie, we try to provide a kind of working synthesis of the both approaches.
Keywords: anti-essentialism, art, George Dickie, institutionalism, Karl Popper, Morris Weitz, politics
AD MARGINEM SOCIALITATIS: THE LOGIC OF WAR-MAKING BY FRANCISCO DE VITORIA
Author Ivanova Julia, leading researcher, Poletaev Institute for Historical and Theoretical Studies in the Humanities, reader in history, National State University Higher School of Ecomomics, e-mail: email@example.com
Summary: The article examines the argumentative strategies carried out by the Dominican theologist Francisco de Vitoria (c.ca 1483 - 1546) in his famous Relectiones theologicae. The study focuses upon the aporetic notion of the international sociability in Vitoria, making an attempt of a thorough investigation of the juridical and exegetical arguments in the treatise. This approach gives an opportunity to contrast Relectiones to the tradition of the historiographic apology of interventionism, on the one hand, and to the exegetical tradition of the justification of the king’s and Pope’s ‘rights’ on the discovered lands – on the other. It has been shown that we may consider the notion of the ‘just war’ (bellum justum) as a limit-concept, based on the paradoxical structure of ‘exclusion/ inclusion’ in the G. Agamben’s sense. Therefore, this category can be ranked among the numerous limit-concepts of the Early-modern jurisprudence and political theory, such as international sociability, state of exception, and state of nature.
Keywords: Francisco de Vitoria, just war, interventionism, international sociability, jus commertii
THE WALL AND THE CANVAS: LISSITZKY’S SPATIAL EXPERIMENTS AND THE WHITE CUBE
Author Anastasia Koro, МА student, Art History Department, University of Kingston, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Summary: In his essay ‘Notes on the Gallery Space’ (1976), Brian O’Doherty suggests a theory of integral development of the concept of the White Cube and contemporary space-related art. He explains the theory by analyzing the transition from the Salon hanging to the White Cube and from the easel painting to installation art. The general principle of this transition is the shift from two-dimensional to three-dimensional concepts in art. Despite the fact that the transition to three-dimensional concept in art was one of the key subjects of experimental work of Russian avant-garde artists, O’Doherty omits it in his analysis possibly due to the lack of the information during the Cold War period. This essay applies O’Doherty’s theory to the spatial experiments of Russian avant-garde artist El Lissitzky; it does this via a consecutive study of Lissytzky’s Prouns, Proun Room and the Abstract Cabinet in relation to the concept of the White Cube. An analysis of O’Doherty’s claims and reasoning is undertaken and the question asked: are they valid in the context of a specific artist? At the same time it is suggested that the critical language of O’Doherty could be used to reassess Lissitzky’s impact on the contemporary concept of space in art. The result of this analysis could be applied to the work of other Russian avant-garde artists engaged with spatial experiments in art.
Keywords: Russian avant-garde, White Cube, Lissitzky, O’Doherty, space, installation, three-dimensional concept in art
PHENOMENOLOGY OF THE IMAGE AS ATTEMT OF THE RUSSIAN AUGUSTINIAN AESTHETICS
Author Markov Alexander, PhD, assistant professor, Chair of the Cinema and Contemporary Art Studies, Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH, Moscow, Russia), e-mail: email@example.com
Summary: In this paper we show that along with the "theology of the icon" in Russian culture evolved a kind of philosophy of the image, not exalting, but problematizing the image. In this way philosophy surmounted rigid opposition between canonical icons and pictures, and introduced the intermediate links between the both. This was due to the opening of a new subjectivity: understanding visual images as part of the inner experience required to rethink the relationship between matter and form. This rethinking of transformed poetic metaphors into a productive way of thinking about the composition of paintings. At the same rhetoric that was used by Russian authors, proved to be very productive to create a new language of understanding art, and consideration of this language reveals the rhetorical moments of traditional art history.
Keywords: Augustine, Russian philosophy, icon, aesthetics, spiritual traditions in art
ON THE DEFINITION OF CULTURAL VALUES OF PERSIAN PAINTING
Author Shabanpoor Monireh, PhD candidate, department of culturology and anthropology, Moscow State University of Culture and Arts, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Summary: Cultural value of Persian painting derives from its originality, its “classical” character (stemmed from popular art) and secularity as dissociation in its inception with religion. We consider classical character not as definition of manner or style, but as methodological development of the resources of popular art, according to the rules of expression and common sense. So, the specific of the Persian culture could be abstracted from the orientalist presumptions, and reassembled in the broader context of the development of rules-oriented canonical art, with its investigation of local classical samples, as matter of artistic cult.
Keywords: Iranian culture, Persian miniature, Persian paintings
THE PROBLEM OF MATCHING THE FORM AND CONTENT IN THE CINEMA BY IVAN VYRYPAEV
Author Kozlova Anastasia, student of the MA program "Art of the Cinema", Faculty of the History of Art, Russian State University for the Humanities, e-mail: email@example.com
Summary: This article discusses special discursive features of Ivan Vyrypaev’s cinema with formal and content analysis of his films. The key achievements in the theoretical works of Russian formalism and analysis of the interplay of the form and the content in art allow us to establish connection between these two key concepts, form and content, and therefore to identify particularities of their correlation in the director’s work. It allows to conceptualize interdependence and specificity of influence of theatrical practices in Vyrypaev’s cinematographic artistic decisions.
Keywords: form and content, formalism, Ivan Vyrypaev, theatre of the new drama
DECONSTRUCTING THE NOTION OF AUTHENTICITY OF THE DOCUMENTARY IN THE RUSSIAN CINEMA OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 1990s
Author Korotkova Anastasia, student of the MA program "Art of the Cinema", Faculty of the History of Art, Russian State University for the Humanities, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Summary: The article is devoted to three films as cases of questioning the concept of reliability of film documents accepting the images proper to Soviet culture. The interplay of images in the space of Soviet aesthetics reconstitutes and extends the essence of the Soviet mythology in a mocking vein, revaluating the mechanism of the falsification of reality. Through the dialogue with the passed away aesthetical structure, these three films of early 1990s claim ideologically infected film documents as basically unreliable and untrue.
Keywords: deconstruction, reliability, filmic document, newsreel, falsification, ideology, soviet aesthetics
SYNCRETISM AS THE WHOLENESS BASIS: IMAGE, POETRY, CINETEXT
Author Khachaturyan Tatevik, student of the MA program "Art of the Cinema", Faculty of the History of Art, Russian State University for the Humanities, e-mail: email@example.com
Summary: The article provides analysis of the film as syncretic art form, on the case of Andrei Khrzhanovsky's A room and a half or a sentimental journey to homeland. It reveals the mechanisms that guarantee the integrity of the work of art. The film combines fiction, documentary, mockumentary, animation, offscreen text and poetry. All these forms are natural for the cinema art, and mastership is to make unusual combination of usual forms as kind of text. However, the integrity of such films achieved not only by syncretic character of cinema-text (cinetext), but also by the synthetic character of common memory of the audience.
Keywords: animation, fiction film, documentary, poetry, cinetext, semiotics
MASS CULTURE AND MYTHOLOGY AT THE BEGINNING OF XXI CENTURY (ON EXAMPLE OF AMERICAN MOVIES BASED ON COMICS AND FANTASTIC NOVELS)
Author Aleksandrova Elena, PhD in cultural studies, associated professor, chair of Ethnic Psychology and Psychological Problems of Poly-cultural Education, Moscow City University of Psychology and Education, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Summary: The article deals with the problems of modern mass culture and of the new mythology. Problems of the new mythology in popular culture are analyzed with an example of American art films based on comic books and works in the genre of sci-fi. The material analyzed refers to the period 2008-2012. The focus of the analysis is on the new mechanisms of the functioning of mass culture in the XXI century, and the philosophical problem of the person in the postmodern discourse.
Keywords: americanism, Postmodern, mythology, mass culture
«THE CREATION OF THE WORLD»: WAYS OF IMAGINATIVE MODELING IN SCIENCE FICTION FILM
Author Hryukin Denis, Saint-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, graduate student, e-mail: email@example.com
Summary: Article attempts to shape definition of the genre of science fiction film that comes beyond close readings of iconography and formal conventions. Author offers view into sci-fi film, redefining it in terms of fundamental for this genre ways of imaginative modeling.
Keywords: science fiction film, film genre, genre theory, genre conventions, the imagery in the film, suspension of disbelief